Peer-reviewed publications

Refsland, T.K. and J. H. Cushman. 2021. Continent-wide synthesis of the long-term population dynamics of quaking aspen in the face of accelerating human impacts. Oecologia 197:25-42.

Pellegrini, A.F.A., T.K. Refsland, C. Averill, C. Terrer, A.C. Staver, D.G. Brockway, A. Caprio, W. Clatterbuck, C. Coetsee, J.D. Haywood, S.E. Hobbie, W.A. Hoffmann, J. Kush, T. Lewis, W.K. Moser, S.T. Overby, B. Patterson, K.G. Peay, P.B. Reich, C. Ryan, M.A.S. Sayer, B. Scharenbroch, T. Schoennagel, G.R. Smith, K. Stephan, C. Swanston, M.G. Turner, T.M. Varner, and R.B. Jackson. 2021. Decadal changes in fire frequencies shift tree communities and functional traits. Nature Ecology & Evolution 5:504-512.

Refsland, T.K., B. Knapp, K. Stephan and J.M. Fraterrigo. 2020. Sixty-five years of fire manipulation reveals climate and fire interact to determine growth rates of Quercus spp. Ecosphere 11(11):e03287.

Cushman, J. H., L. Sanders and T.K. Refsland. 2020. Long-term and interactive effects of different mammalian consumers on growth, survival and recruitment of dominant tree species. Ecology & Evolution 10(16):8801-8814.

Refsland, T.K. and J.M. Fraterrigo. 2018. Fire increases drought vulnerability of Quercus alba seedlings by altering forest microclimate and nitrogen availability. Functional Ecology 32(10):2298-2309.

Refsland, T.K. and J. M. Fraterrigo. 2017. Both canopy and understory traits act as response-effect traits in fire-managed forests. Ecosphere 8(12):e02036.

Publications – in revision, review or preparation

**authored by graduate student mentee

**Reikowski, E.S., T.K. Refsland, and J.H. Cushman. Herbivory by domestic and wild ungulates as drivers of aspen recruitment and understory composition through arid montane landscapes. Submitted: Ecological Applications.

Refsland, T.K. and J. H. Cushman. Cross-continental responses of pioneer tree species to interactions among climate change and disturbance in high-latitude forests. In preparation.

Cushman J.H., **J. Macdonald, C.A. Halsch, T.K. Refsland, and B. Steed. Region-wide patterns in and drivers of demographic rates for quaking aspen throughout the arid parts of its geographic range. In preparation.

Dilts, T.E., T.K. Refsland, J.A. Greenberg, and J.H. Cushman. Rates and drivers of conifer encroachment in quaking aspen stands throughout the Lake Tahoe Basin during the past 35 years. In preparation.